HABITS SHIFT DEMAND TOWARD LESS CATIONIC, MORE ANIONIC IN SITU
AS INTEREST IN HEALTHIER ECOSYSTEMS CONTINUES TO RISE, NEW CONSUMER INSIGHTS HIGHLIGHT OPPORTUNITIES FOR REDUCED-CATIONIC AND HIGH-ANIONIC POLYMER OPTIONS
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Hypoxemia as the mechanism of acute cationic polymer toxicity in rainbow trout and prevention of toxicity using an anionic neutralizing polymer
Cationic polymers are acutely toxic to rainbow trout.
Water containing cationic polymer cannot be released to the environment.
The cause of cationic polymer toxicity is hypoxemia due to polymer binding to the gill.
Polymer-induced hypoxemia can be eliminated by addition of neutralizing polymers.
Toxicity of cationic polymers can be eliminated by addition of neutralizing polymers.
What Our Customers Are Saying
"I have been involved in a series of collaborations with Mr. Hanna over the past 12 years to test the potential toxicity of various Clearflow products on several aquatic organisms and demonstrate safe application levels. Information on the minimal toxicity of Clearflow anionic polymers (unlike cationic polymers) can be found in our 2014 paper, which demonstrated that some polymers, including one of those to be applied in your application, do not result in any toxicity to aquatic organisms even after a 30 day exposure period. In addition, authors at the US Dept of Agriculture published a paper, where they examined the potential hazard associated with synthetic PAM applications in agricultural settings. They found that anionic polymers have very limited to no toxicity even at values 10X above typical field application rates used in these agricultural settings. Furthermore, the toxicity threshold for mammalian ingestion of PAMs is very high and is essentially a non-factor. I hope this alleviates some of your concerns. Feel free to email me or give me a call at the number above if you wish for more information."
- Dr. Greg Goss Ph.D.